How to quit smoking and keep your bad habits from rearing their ugly head again
New research from researchers at Harvard and the University of Pennsylvania suggests that one of the most effective ways to kick the habit of smoking is to have a good habit.
The study, which was published today in the journal Tobacco Control, found that people who regularly smoked, or who had an unhealthy habit, were no more likely to be addicted to cigarettes or tobacco-related disease.
The research was based on the idea that smokers who had a healthy habit had less risk of developing chronic health problems than people who had not.
The researchers analyzed data from more than 8,000 U.S. adults over 20 years, and found that the average smoker had a lifetime probability of developing smoking-related health problems of 2.6%, compared with 1.8% for those who did not smoke.
That means that the number of people who smoked daily or weekly for a lifetime of 20 years was less than the average number of cigarettes smoked for that same period of time, which means that, on average, a smoker who did no smoking for 30 years had a lower chance of developing a chronic health problem than a smoker whose habit had continued for 30.
Researchers used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which has tracked the health of the U. S. population for more than 20 years.
NHANES is a survey of about 20,000 people in the United States.
They found that, among those who had never smoked before, the average person who did have a daily smoking habit had a 10.9% lifetime probability that they would develop a chronic disease.
The odds were 2.4% for people who quit daily and 2.8%, for those with a weekly smoking habit.
“For the average daily smoker, quitting smoking would have an additional lifetime probability 1.5% of developing diabetes or coronary heart disease,” the researchers wrote.
However, the researchers found that among people who did smoke regularly for more years, quitting was more likely for those without a smoking-cessation disorder, which is when people who are unable to quit because of an underlying health condition.
“The association between smoking and a history of an established chronic disease may be attenuated by having a history or illness that may predispose someone to developing the disease,” they wrote.
For those who quit smoking regularly for years, the odds of developing any disease, including cancer, remained unchanged at 2.3% for men and 1.4%, for women.
For those who were still smoking daily, the risk remained the same.
“It is noteworthy that the association between cigarette smoking and developing chronic disease persisted even when we controlled for history of coronary heart death, hypertension, or chronic disease,” their report concluded.
Dr. David F. Freedman, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University at Buffalo, told the Associated Press that the results “suggest that cigarette smoking can be a significant risk factor for developing disease.”
There is a lot of evidence that cigarettes may be a gateway drug,” Freedman said.
In addition to the research from Freedman’s office, researchers at the university conducted research on the prevalence of smoking-attributable diseases in the U, the tobacco industry, and the cigarette industry.